International Journal For Multidisciplinary Research

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A Widely Indexed Open Access Peer Reviewed Multidisciplinary Bi-monthly Scholarly International Journal

Call for Paper Volume 5 Issue 6 November-December 2023 Submit your research before last 3 days of December to publish your research paper in the issue of November-December.

The Surface and Ground-water Contamination in Sub-himalayas and Quality of Water in Poonch Region Azad Kashmir

Author(s) Muhammad Arshad Khan, Areena A.K, Azka A.K, Lyabha Abid
Country Pakistan
Abstract The surface and ground water contamination in rivers, lakes, streams, wells and springs, in Sub-Himalayas have been evaluated. This is a critical question in determining the quality of water. Water quality depends on solutes and gases dissolved in Water. Quality is a result of natural physical and chemical state and any alteration made by human activities. The chemical and micro-organisms impact the quality of ground water coming from many sources, like agricultural chemicals 20%, animal wastes 10%, disposal of wastes from hospitals 8% , waste from cities 20%, septic tanks 10%, sewage water 12%, organic waters 5%, landfills 2%, leakage of underground tanks 7%, from food and air 2%. Carcinogenic compounds are cancer risk about 1%.
A comprehensive research was conducted on surface and ground water in district poonch and adjoining areas. In this research Physical and chemical quality of water was evaluated to know the cause of diseases in Sub-Himalayas. The cause of diseases in the area of study is investigated. The data was also collected from hospitals. The hepatitis was reported 20%, typhoid 10%, gastroenteritis 33%. Chronic diseases like cancer about 10%, neurogenic problems 15%. Bone softness and heart failures are very common. The water samples were collected and immediately transported to the PCSIR laboratory for testing.
The major elements in the water are Ca, 45.0-> 75;0 mg/l, Mg, 34.5-> 13.3 mg/l, Na, 22.7-13.0 mg/l, K, >2.7 -1.0 mg/l, HCO3, > 472-215.14 mg/l, Cl2, >24.0-2.43 mg/l, SO4, > 51.0-42.0 mg/l, NO3, 7.0-0.63 mg/l. The minor constituents include. Mn >6-1.0 mg/l, F, >2-2.0 mg/l , NO3, 4.7-6.8 mg/l. The trace elements such as Fe, 2.1-0.1 mg/l, Pb, >5.0-3.5 mg/l, Cu, 2-1 mg/l, Zn, >5.0-1.0 mg/l, Ni, >4.0-1.0 mg/l, Mn, 5.0-1.0 mg/l. The other elements Hg, Cr, were reported. The PH, 5.6-8.8 in drinking water create stomach diseases. During rainy season turbidity remain between 6.2- >13.
Number of patients coming daily in the hospital and those admitted were also investigated. Most of the patients have kidney stone, lungs infection, dehydrogene, anemia, obstruction in nervous system, goiter, bronchitis, sore, throat infection, pneumonia, neuralgia, jaundice, malaria, cholera, gastroenteritis, typhoid, dysentery, skin diseases were reported. All diseases were waterborne.
Keywords Contamination, Chemical elements, Waterborne diseases. Hydrogene Cancerous, Complex compounds, Hazardous elements, Wastes, Uranium, Carbonates
Field Biology > Geology
Published In Volume 5, Issue 6, November-December 2023
Published On 2023-11-16
Cite This The Surface and Ground-water Contamination in Sub-himalayas and Quality of Water in Poonch Region Azad Kashmir - Muhammad Arshad Khan, Areena A.K, Azka A.K, Lyabha Abid - IJFMR Volume 5, Issue 6, November-December 2023. DOI 10.36948/ijfmr.2023.v05i06.8592
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